Endocrine-disorders

Annals of Internal Medicine: Published May 2024Testosterone (T) levels slowly decline as we age, and serum hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels gradually increase. As SHBG increases, there is less T available to the tissues. There are several conditions that reduce levels of T; these include being overweight, having metabolic dysfunction, liv...
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism Journal: Published: December 2023Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and liver diseases are closely associated. T2D is an independent risk factor for chronic liver diseases, including metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology: Published December, 2023Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. This study investigated the randomised treatment effect of low-dose aspirin on incident type 2 diabetes and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations among older adults.TAKE-HOME MESSAGEThis post hoc analysis of...
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications: September 2023Kidney disease is a diabetes-related complication and diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the world.This study analyzed the incidence of kidney disease in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.TAKE-HOME MESSAGEAfter 21 years of randomization i...
Diabetes Care Journal (ADA): August, 2023Early identification of patients with type 2 diabetes who are at risk of kidney disease progression is particularly important in the context of new glucose-lowering medications such as sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor (Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin, Empagliflozin, Ertugliflozin) that can m...
TAKE HOME MESSAGERequests for thyroid tests are increasing, although in many cases clinical need is not evident.If thyroid dysfunction is suspected, measuring TSH alone is recommended as the first step. Test T4 only when TSH is abnormal.Ultrasound should be considered for patients with thyroid dysfunction and goitre (enlarged thyroid) or palp...
ADA Journal: Diabetes Care: July, 2023Diabetes can be diagnosed by demonstrating increased concentrations of glucose in venous plasma or increased hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the blood. Glycemic control is monitored by the people with diabetes measuring their own blood glucose with meters and/or with continuous interstitial glucose monitorin...
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association: July, 2019Subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevated serum thyrotropin (often referred to as thyroid-stimulating hormone, or TSH) level with normal levels of free thyroxine (FT4) affects up to 10% of the adult population.Subclinical hypothyroidism may be categorized as grade 1 when...
Diabetes Care: Diabetes Journal: July, 2023Dietary sugars are associated with various health issues, including overweight, obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Manufacturers have proposed alternatives to reduce added sugars, notably by substituting artificial sweeteners (e.g., aspartame, acesulfame potassium [K],...
Diabetes Care: May, 2023Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular disease, with the risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality more than double in people with type 2 diabetes compared with those without. In the last decade, large dedicated CV outcome trials in people with type 2 diabetes and at high risk or...
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice: November 21, 2022The relationship between serum uric acid levels and incident type 2 diabetes remains controversial.This cohort study assessed the association between serum uric acid levels and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. TAKE-HOME MESSAGEThere was no significant associati...
ADA: Diabetes Journals: Published June 2023Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important causes of CKD. Moreover, both DM and CKD are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metformin is still the first-line drug for DM management. The concern, of course, is an increased risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA)...